I wrote this chapter: ‘Socialism. Two Centuries of Social Progress’, for the common book edited by Valérie Vézina: Political Ideologies and Worldviews: An Introduction.
Socialism emerged at the beginning of the 19th century in the context of the Industrial Revolution and the rise of capitalism. In two hundred years, it has spread to most of the countries of the world and contributed to extensive social changes. This emergence has given rise to important ideological diversity since many currents are related to it, such as communism, social democracy and eco-socialism. This chapter highlights the distinctive characteristics of socialism while relaying the differences between the currents that claim to be socialist and the contemporary challenges they face
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